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Code of Ethics in Journalism


Photon Media adopts the Global Charter of Ethics for Journalism by the International Federation of Journalists. The Charter is based on major texts of international law, in particular the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It contains 16 articles plus a preamble and defines journalists’ duties and rights regarding ethics.

The right of everyone to have access to information and ideas, reiterated in Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, underpins the journalist’s mission. The journalist’s responsibility towards the public takes precedence over any other responsibility, in particular towards their employers and the public authorities. Journalism is a profession, which requires time, resources and the means to practice – all of which are essential to its independence. This international declaration specifies the guidelines of conduct for journalists in the research, editing, transmission, dissemination and commentary of news and information, and in the description of events, in any media whatsoever.

  1. Respect for the facts and for the right of the public to truth is the first duty of the journalist.
  2. In pursuance of this duty, the journalist shall at all times defend the principles of freedom in the honest collection and publication of news, and of the right of fair comment and criticism. He/she will make sure to clearly distinguish factual information from commentary and criticism.
  3. The journalist shall report only in accordance with facts of which he/ she knows the origin. The journalist shall not suppress essential information or falsify any document. He/she will be careful to faithfully reproduce statements and other material that non-public persons publish in social media.
  4. The journalist shall use only fair methods to obtain information, images, documents and data and he/she will always report his/her status as a journalist and will refrain from using hidden recordings of images and sounds, except where it is impossible for him/her to collect information that is overwhelmingly in the public interest. He/she will demand free access to all sources of information and the right to freely investigate all facts of public interest.
  5. The notion of urgency or immediacy in the dissemination of information shall not take precedence over the verification of facts, sources and/or the offer of a reply.
  6. The journalist shall do the utmost to rectify any errors or published information which is found to be inaccurate in a timely, explicit, complete and transparent manner.
  7. The journalist shall observe professional secrecy regarding the source of information obtained in confidence.
  8. The journalist will respect privacy. He/she shall respect the dignity of the persons named and/or represented and inform the interviewee whether the conversation and other material is intended for publication. He/she shall show particular consideration to inexperienced and vulnerable interviewees.
  9. Journalists shall ensure that the dissemination of information or opinion does not contribute to hatred or prejudice and shall do their utmost to avoid facilitating the spread of discrimination on grounds such as geographical, social or ethnic origin, race, gender, sexual orientation, language, religion, disability, political and other opinions.
  10. The journalist will consider serious professional misconduct to be
    distortion of facts
    slander, libel, defamation, unfounded accusations
  11. The journalist shall refrain from acting as an auxiliary of the police or other security services. He/she will only be required to provide information already published in a media outlet.
  12. The journalist will show solidarity with his/her colleagues, without renouncing his/her freedom of investigation, duty to inform, and right to engage in criticism, commentary, satire and editorial choice.
  13. The journalist shall not use the freedom of the press to serve any other interest and shall refrain from receiving any unfair advantage or personal gain because of the dissemination or non-dissemination of information. He/she will avoid – or put an end to – any situation that could lead him/her to a conflict of interest in the exercise of his/her profession. He/she will avoid any confusion between his activity and that of advertising or propaganda. He/she will refrain from any form of insider trading and market manipulation.
  14. The journalist will not undertake any activity or engagement likely to put his/her independence in danger. He/she will, however, respect the methods of collection/dissemination of information that he / she has freely accepted, such as “off the record”, anonymity, or embargo, provided that these commitments are clear and unquestionable.
  15. Journalists worthy of the name shall deem it their duty to observe faithfully the principles stated above. They may not be compelled to perform a professional act or to express an opinion that is contrary to his/her professional conviction or conscience.
  16. Within the general law of each country the journalist shall recognize in matters of professional honor, the jurisdiction of independent self-regulatory bodies open to the public, to the exclusion of every kind of interference by governments or others.


《光傳媒》採用國際記者聯盟(International Federation of Journalists)制定的《全球新聞倫理憲章》。該憲章基於國際法作為主要文本,尤其是《世界人權宣言》。憲章包括第16條款及序言,明確規定了記者在道德方面的職責和權利。


  1. 尊重事實和公眾對真相的權利是記者的首要職責。
  2. 為實現這一職責,記者應捍衛誠實收集和發布新聞,以及自由進行公正評論和批評的原則。他/她將確保清晰區分事實信息和評論。
  3. 記者應僅根據他/她所知道的事實來報導。記者不得壓制重要信息或篡改任何文件。他/她將謹慎地忠實轉載社交媒體上非公開人士發布的聲明和其他材料。
  4. 記者應使用公正方法獲取信息、圖像、文件和數據,並報告自己作為記者的身份,除非在無法收集對公眾利益至關重要的信息的情況下,應避免使用隱藏的錄音和影像。他/她有自由獲取訪問的消息來源和調查所有與公眾利益相關的事實之權利。
  5. 在信息傳播的緊急性或即時性觀念方面,事實、信息來源的驗證和提供回應的權利必須優先。
  6. 記者將盡最大努力及時、明確、完整和透明地糾正任何發現不準確的錯誤信息。
  7. 記者應對以信任為基礎獲得的信息來源,保守專業秘密。
  8. 記者將尊重隱私。他/她應尊重被提及和/或被代表的人的尊嚴,並告知接受採訪者對話和其他材料是否打算發布。他/她應對經驗不足和脆弱的受訪者表示特別關切。
  9. 記者應確保信息或意見的傳播不助長仇恨或偏見,並將竭盡所能避免促使基於地理、社會或種族起源、種族、性別、性取向、語言、宗教、殘疾、政治和其他意見的歧視擴散。
  10. 記者將把以下行為視作嚴重的職業不當行為:
    – 抄襲
    – 歪曲事實
    – 誹謗、誣衊、毀謗、毫無根據的指控
  1. 記者應避免充當警察或其他安全機構的輔助人員。他/她只需提供已經在媒體中發表的信息。
  2. 記者將與同事團結一致,不放棄自己的調查自由、信息職責和發表評論、評論、諷刺和編輯自主的權利。
  3. 記者不應利用新聞自由來服務任何其他利益,並應避免因信息的傳播或非傳播而獲取任何不公平的優勢或個人收益。他/她將避免或終止可能使他/她陷入利益沖突的任何情況。他/她將避免在自己的活動和廣告或宣傳之間產生任何混淆。他/她將避免任何形式的內線交易和市場操縱。
  4. 記者將不參與可能危及自己獨立性的任何活動。然而,他/她將尊重自己自由接受的信息收集/傳播方法,例如「不具名」、「匿名」或「禁止於某時段前發布」,前提是這些承諾是清晰而無可質疑的。
  5. 專業的記者將視以上所述原則為自己的職責,不得被迫履行違反其專業信仰或良心的職業行為或發表相反意見。
  6. 在各國的普通法下,記者應承認在專業榮譽事務上,向公眾公開透明,並擁有獨立自律的機構管轄權,不受政府或任何形式的干預。